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   Any of a class of chemical elements, as iron, gold, aluminum..... generally characterized by ductility, luster, conductivity of heat and electricity, and the ability to replace the hydrogen of an acid to form a salt. 


         Fun Facts on "Metals"

As of 2009 it has been estimated that humans have mined around 160,000 tonnes of gold.

Over the last 100 years South Africa has the biggest producer of gold. In recent times however it has surpassed China.

As of 2009, the USA has 8133 tonnes of Gold reserves, while Canada only has 3.

Throughout history Gold has often been a symbol for wealth.

Gold is the popular metals for investments.

The price of Gold fluctuates and is often linked to major economic events.

There is a monetary system called the The "Gold Standard" which fixes a unit of money to a certain weight of Gold.

Over the years Gold has been used to create expensive jewelry, coins, and various forms of art such as the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun's famous burial mask. In modern times it also been used for things such as electronics and denistry.

Injectable Gold has been proven to reduce pain and in patients suffering from tuberculosis and rheomatuid arthritus.

Gold is a popular choice when it comes to rewarding achievement medals, statues, and trophies. Academy Awards, Olympic  and Noble Prize winners all receive golden items in recognition of their achievements.




 Steel is an important alloy combination of metals that is created from a mixture of metals, mostly iron. There are many different types of steel including stainless steel, galvanized steel and carbon steel. 

Steel is common used to make a number of products including knives, machines, trail rails, cars, motors, wires.

Bronze is a metal ally made from copper and tin. Copper makes up the larger amount usually 80 to 95%.

          Gold Facts

Gold is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Av and its atomic number is 79.

Compound to other metals, gold is less chemically reactive.

Gold is a good conductor of electricity and heat.

Gold is malleable enough for 1 gram to be hammered into a sheet 1 square meter in size. It can also be made so thin that it appears transparent.

Due to similiar appearance to gold, the mineral pirite has the nickname "Fool's Gold".

The amount of gold in various alloys a combination of gold and other metal such as silver, is measured in carats (k) pure gold is 24 k.


Silver is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Ag and atomic number is 47.

Silver is soft, shiny metal that is a good conductor of electricity.

Silver is precious metal has been used for many years to make fine pieces of jewelry, coins, utensils, various pieces of art.

In modern times silver is also used in denistry, photography, mirrors and in  a number of industrial applications that make use of its unique properties.

You may have heard of the term sterling silver, this is the name given to an alloy (combinationof metals) that is at least 92.5% silver weight. The other 7.5% made up of other mteals, usually copper.

Silver is found naturally by itself, as an alloy with gold or in an ore (a rock containing various metals & elements) Silver is often found in copper & lead ores.

The word silver is one of the few words in the English language that is nearly impossible to rhyme. Words such as orange, purple, breathy, wolf, depth, gulf, ninth, twelfth, are also difficult or impossible to rhyme.


Iron is a chemical element & metal.It's chemical symbol is Fe & its atomis number is 26.

When iron & oxygen react is the presence of water or moisture rust (iron oxide)is formed. You might have noticed your bike chain (or other parts) rusting. Another word for rust corrosion, which describes the disintegration of materials such as iron & steel.

Because iron oxidizes so easily, it is rarely found in a pure metal form on earth's surface. It is instead removed from area (rocks containing important minerals & elements.

Iron is the most common element in the earth's crust. Making up around 5% of the total (usually found as iron oxide in minerals like hematite.

The earth's core is thought to be made up of iron nickel alloy.

Gas giant plants such as Saturn & Jupiter have cores that are rich in iron.

Iron is the 6th most common element found in the universe.

Steel is well known & commonly used alloy made from iron & a small amount of carbon (or sometimes other elements). The amount of carbon is small (usually between 0.2%) but it makes a huge difference in strength.

The early wrought iron used in human history actually came from meteors. 

Cast iron is a type of iron that conatains carbon, silicon & small amount of manganese. It was used in earlier times to build structures like cast iron bridges. Wrought iron tools & weapons were first made from iron & steel.

In 2006, China was the world's largest producer of iron making up around 33% of the world's total production.

Machines, vehicles, building structures are commonly built from iron (usually in the form of steel).

To prevent iron & steel suffering from rust damage, they can be painted, coated with with plastic, galvanized in the form of hemoglobin. Iron deficiency can be quite common (especially among women) symptoms including fatique & weakness.

Iron rich foods include red meat, fish, beans & chickpeas.

         Alkate Metals 

Lithium (Li) Atomic number 3. Under normal conditions lithium is is the lightest of them all.

Sodium (N9) Atomic number 11 Sodium is a silvery white metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife at room temperature.

Potassium (K) Atomic number 19 Potassium only occurs in nature as ionic salt. It is found as part of minerals & dissolved in sea water.

Rubidiom (Rb) Atomic number 37 Rubidiom was discovered in 1861. It gives a reddish violet color when burned in a flame.

Caesium (C) Atomic number 55 Caesium has a melting point of 28% C  (83 F) is one of only 5 metals that are liquid at or near temperature, temperature (the others being mercury, franicium, gallium, rubidiom.

Francium (Fr) Atomic number 87 Franvium was the last element discovered in nature and it is extremely discovered in nature and it is extremely rare, scientists predict that only 20 to 30 grams of it exists on earth.



Steel is an alloy of iron, carbon containing less than 2% carbon and 1% manganese & small amounts of silicon, phosphurus, sulphur & oxygen. Steel is the world's largest engineering & construction material. It is used in every aspect in our lives, cars, construction products, refriguators, washing machines, cargo ships, surgical scalpels.

Steel is not a single product, there are more than 3,500 different grades of steel with different physical, chemical & environmental  properties. Approximately 75% of modern steels have been developed in the past 20 years.

If the Eiffel Tower were to be rebuilt today, the engineers would only need one-third of the steel that was originally used.

Modern cars are built with new steels that are stronger but up to 25% lighter than in the past.

How much steel is produced in a year ? World crude steel production reached 1,1414 million metric tonnes (mmt) in 2010. This is an increase of 15% compound to 2009 - is a new record for global crude steel production.

Is steel environmentally friendly & sustainable ? Steel is very friendly to the environment. It is completely recyclable, posses great durability and compared to other materials, requires relatively low amounts of energy to produced. Innovative lightweight steel construction (such as in automobile & rail vehicle construction) help to save energy & resources.

The steel industry has made immerse efforts to limit environmental pollution in the last decades. Energy consumption & carbon dioxide emission have been decreased to half of what thet were in the 1960s. Due to emissions have been reduced by even MORE.

Can steel be recycled ? YES, very easily. Steel's unique magnetic properties make it easy material to recover from waste stream to be recycled. The properties of steel remain unchanged no matter how many times the steel is recycled. The electric production can use exclusively recycled steel. 


     10 "Largest" Producing Countries                              of "STEEL"

    2009, "Source World Steel Association"                          65   Reporting Countries 

#1 China- Crude steel production 626.7 million metric tons. Total export: 24 million metric tons. Steel use: 576 million metric tons of finished steel products.

# 2 Japan- Crude steel production 109.6 million tons. Total exports 33.3 million metric tons. Steel use: 63.8 million metric tons finished.

#3 United States- Crude steel production 80.5 tons. Total exports: 9.2 million tons. Steel use: 80.1 million metric tons of finished steel products.

#4 India- Crude steel production: 68.3.  Total exports: 5.6 million tons. Steel use: 60.6 million metric tons of finished steel products.

#5 Russia- Crude steel production 66.9 million tons. Total exports: 27.6 million tons Steel Use: 35.7 million metric tons of finished steel.

#6 South Korea- Crude steel production 58.4 million metric tons. Total exports: 20.2 million tons. Steel use: 52.4 million metric tons of finished steel products.

#7 Germany- Crude steel production 43.8 million tons. Total exports: 20.8  million tons. Steel use: 36.3 million metric tons of finished steel.

#8 Ukraine- Crude steel production 33.4 million tons. Total exports: 24 million metric tons. Steel use: 5.5 million metric tons of finished product.

#9 Brazil- Crude steel production 32.9 metric tons. Total export: 8.6 metric tons. Steel use: 26.6 million tons of finished product.

#10 Turkey- Crude steel production 29.1 metric tons. Total exports: 17.4 million metric tons. Steel use: 23.6 million metric tons of finished product.


            Metallic Elements

Alkaki Metals: lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, francium

Alkaline Earth Metals: beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium

Transitition Metals: zink, molybdeum, cadmium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, techetium, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, platinum, gold, mercury, rutherfordium, dubnium, seaborgium, bohrium, hassium, copevnicium

Post-transition Metals: aluminium, gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, bismuth, polonium

Lanthanides: aluminum, gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, bismuth, polonium

Actinides: actinium, thorium, protactium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, ameizicium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelium, nobelium, lawrencium

Elements which are possibly metals:meiterium, darmstadtium, roentgenium, ununtrium, flerovium, ununpentein, livermorium

Elements which are considered metals: germanium, arsenic, atimony, astatine 



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